In Benzoin Condensation, Carbon-carbon Bond is Formed when Two Molecules of Aldehydes Reacts with each other to Form Benzoin. Learn about Benzoin. Abstract: The benzoin condensation in methanol at ‘ proceeds by addition of cyanide ion to benzaldehyde. (AG* – 12 kcal/mol, AGOzg8 = f Benzoin Condensation Benzoin derivatives are important intermediates for the synthesis of a variety of compounds including deoxybenzoins.

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The benzoin condensation is in effect a dimerization and not a condensation because a small molecule like water is not released in this reaction. Views Read Edit View history. Ckndensation of the Chemical Society, Transactions. In biochemistrythe coenzyme thiamine is responsible for biosynthesis of acyloin-like compounds utilizing the benzoin condensation.

Benzoin condensation – Mechanism Mordor

From Wikipedia, condemsation free encyclopedia. This coenzyme also contains a thiazolium moiety, which on deprotonation becomes a nucleophilic carbene. This page was last edited on 21 Decemberat Cyanohydrins regarded as complex acids”.

These compounds are important in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. The cyanide ion serves three different purposes in the course of this reaction. Rearrangement of the intermediate results in polarity reversal of the carbonyl group, which then adds to the second carbonyl group in a second nucleophilic addition.


The asymmetric version of this reaction has been performed by utilizing chiral thiazolium and triazolium salts.

The reaction can be extended to aliphatic aldehydes with base catalysis in the presence of thiazolium salts ; the reaction mechanism is essentially the same For this reason the reaction is also called a benzoin addition. Retrieved from ” https: The reaction product is an aromatic acyloinwith benzoin as the parent compound.

Proton transfer and condenation of the cyanide ion affords benzoin as the product.

Benzoin Condensation | Benzoin Condensation Reaction Mechanism | [email protected]

Triazolium salts were found to give greater enantiomeric excess than thiazolium salts. The reaction mechanism is the same as above, but it occurs in the reverse direction. In the first step in this reaction, the cyanide anion as sodium cyanide reacts with the aldehyde in a nucleophilic addition.

This can allow the access of ketones otherwise difficult to produce. Since the products of the reaction are thermodynamically controlled, the Retro-Benzoin Condensation can be synthetically useful. In this way it is possible to synthesise mixed benzoins, i. This is a reversible reactionwhich means that the distribution of products is determined by the relative thermodynamic stability of the products and starting material.

It acts as a nucleophilefacilitates proton abstraction, and is also the leaving group in the final step. In this reaction, the two aldehydes serve different purposes; one aldehyde donates a proton and one condensatoin accepts a proton.


Angewandte Chemie International Edition. The analogous 1,4-addition of an aldehyde to an enone is called the Stetter reaction. The reaction is formally a 1,2-addition reaction and is catalyzed by nucleophiles such as a cyanide anion or an N-heterocyclic carbene usually thiazolium salts.

If a benzoin or acyloin can be synthesized by another method, then they can be converted into the component ketones condsnsation cyanide or thiazolium catalysts.

Some aldehydes can benzione donate protons, such as 4-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde whereas benzaldehyde is both a proton acceptor and donor. The reaction generally occurs between aromatic aldehydes or glyoxals.

Benzoin condensation

By bezoine this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The benzoin condensation is a reaction often called a condensation reactionfor historical reasons between two aldehydesparticularly benzaldehyde. However, care should be taken to match a proton donating aldehyde with a proton accepting aldehyde to avoid undesired homo-dimerization.