年10月21日 3G SYSTRA 3G System Training Service Description CTXX Issue en Nokia Networks Oy 错误！使用“开始” 应用于要在此处显示的文字. 3G SYSTRA. Introduction to 3G & UMTS Identify what is meant by the term 3G and briefly outline the work completed by the specification bodies. Furthermore. Directory: 3G/4G develop. Plat: PDF Size: KB Downloads: 4. Upload time: Uploader: joyraj. Description: This book on 3G system.
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00_Table of Contents 3G SYSTRA(Jan-06)
Erlang is the measuring unit of network traffic. This includes the design of a transmission network see for instance chapter 5. Synchronisation is a critical issue in the GSM network due to the nature of the information transferred.
As a consequence, the connection is handed over to a cell with a stronger signal. Implementations of the transcoder at different sites The real advantage, however, comes if we use the second configuration shown in the figure with another piece of hardware called submultiplexer. In the example above, the calling party has to dial a different number depending on whether he wants to talk or send a fax.
A calls to B. There are two reasons for performing a handover: Charging records are not generated in the GSM network. Each PCM channel timeslot has 2 bits of information.
A non-transparent service employs re-transmission in case of errors whereas a transparent service does not employ it.
This module will offer general information on signalling procedures used within UMTS. Thus a mobile station and the base transceiver station receives the same signal more than once. The actual charging practices vary considerably from one network operator to another. This is called the TransCoder TC. This process is called Location Update. This would lead to competition in tariffs and service provisioning and it was assumed to be the best way to ensure the rapid expansion of the GSM system; the prices of the equipment would fall and the users would find the cost of calls reducing.
Example of phase modulation The radio air interface has to cope with many problems, such as variable signal strength due to the presence of obstacles along the way, radio frequencies reflecting from buildings, mountains etc. If there sywtra no restrictions defined by the operators, then: Each cell is identified by an identification number called Cell Global Identity CGIwhich comprises the following elements: All of the above.
The cross bar exchange was considered one of the major developments in telecommunications, however, the development of the transistor after the Second World War has revolutionised telecommunications and syatra industries.
SYSTRA Training Document | Muhammad Suleman Khan –
Bearer Services BS supported by the GSM system only provide the capability of transmitting signals between the originating and terminating access points. For example, it is possible to make the observation for only 15 minutes and then, in the formula above, calls per 15 minutes is taken and it is divided by seconds.
These could be referred to as “logical” differences, as they are all human beings, but their functions are different. TMSI is reallocated after every successful authentication verification. They are all bi-directional and point to point channels.
Once again, there are three dedicated channels.
dystra SRES is used for speech encryption and Kc is used for authentication. It is mapped onto a TCH and it replaces 20 ms of speech and, therefore, it is said to work in “stealing” mode. The first one is between the Mobile Station and the Base Station. Packet Data Network Access methods At the moment it is possible to achieve All the various tasks of the exchange are distributed to different functional units, which have a CPU of their own.
Frequency reuse is done in GSM networks, because: The authentication triplet consists of three numbers: Mobile services Switching Centre. At an overview level, explain what UMTS radio resource management is, and describe its effect on network planning. At this bit rate, the duration of one bit is 3. In the case of a mobile terminated call, the subscriber has to syatra paged. Services Basic Supplementary services services Bearer Teleservices services However, if a person registers as a GSM subscriber and buys a mobile station, he takes it for granted that at least the speech service is guaranteed after all, that is the reason why he bought the phone in the first place.
By December there were 32 GSM networks operating in 18 areas. In the latter case the MSC makes the decision. As the SIM has or it should have exactly the same algorithms as used in the triplet generation on the network side, the RAND number that the SIM systrx and inserts to the algorithm should produce exactly the same SRES value as the one generated on the network side.
SRES is used for authentication and Kc is used for speech encryption. If a fading dip occurs at the position of one antenna, the other antenna will still be able to receive the signal. As technology evolved, switches also started becoming automatic and more efficient. If the subscriber is moving within a single location area, there is no need to send a location update request.
3G SYSTRA – Overview to UMTS Network Planning & Radio Resource Management
A mobile terminated call requires HLR enquiry to locate the called subscriber. The ability to reserve circuits in the outgoing direction. Zystra calling subscriber is only responsible for the costs incurred by calling to the mobile station, and the mobile ssystra pays for the forwarded call.
All these three elements are basically databases that hold various types of information. Its structure is as follows: But the specifications do not put a constraint as to where exactly the conversion should take place.
Which of the following pictures is correct? Using this mathematical model, the transmitted bits are estimated based on the received bits.