Abaque de Smith – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. EXERCICE ABAQUE DE – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. fr. abaque de Smith, m diagramme de Smith, m diagramme polaire d’impédance, m. représentation graphique en coordonnées polaires du facteur de réflexion.

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The first transformation is OP 1 along the line of constant normalized resistance in this case the addition of a normalized reactance of – j 0. Using the Smith chart, the normalised impedance may be obtained with appreciable accuracy by plotting the point representing the reflection coefficient treating the Smith chart as a polar diagram and then reading its value directly abasue the characteristic Smith chart scaling.

This is the equation which describes how the complex reflection coefficient changes with the normalised impedance and may be used to construct both families of circles. For the loss free case therefore, the expression for complex reflection coefficient becomes.

An alternative shunt match could be calculated after performing a Smith chart transformation from normalised impedance to normalised admittance. Reflection coefficients can be read directly from the chart as they are unitless parameters. Views Read Edit View history. Using just the characteristic impedance or characteristic admittance and test frequency an equivalent circuit can be found and vice versa. This equation shows that, for abqaue standing wave, the complex reflection coefficient and impedance repeats every half wavelength along the transmission line.

In fact this value is not actually used.

Interactive online Smith chart

Any actual reflection coefficient must have a magnitude of less than or equal to unity so, at the test frequency, this may be expressed by a point inside a circle of unity radius. The following table gives the complex expressions for impedance real and normalised and admittance real and normalised for each of the three basic passive circuit elements: In RF circuit and matching problems sometimes it is more convenient to work with admittances representing conductances and susceptances and sometimes it is more convenient to work with impedances representing resistances and reactances.

The normalised admittance y T is the reciprocal of the normalised impedance z Tso. Again, these may be obtained either by calculation or using a Smith chart as shown, converting between the normalised impedance and normalised admittances planes.


Using complex exponential notation:.

Points with suffix P are in the Z plane and points with suffix Q are in the Y plane. All terms are actually multiplied by this to obtain the instantaneous phasebut it is conventional and understood to omit it. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Solving a typical matching problem will often require several changes between both types of Smith chart, using normalised impedance for series elements and normalised admittances for parallel elements. Versions of the transmission line equation may be similarly derived for the admittance loss free case and for the impedance and admittance lossy cases.

For these a dual normalised impedance and admittance Smith chart may be used.

In this case the wavelength scaling on the Smith chart circumference is not used. If the termination is perfectly matched, the reflection coefficient will be zero, represented effectively by a circle of zero radius or in fact a point at the centre of the Smith chart. For each, the reflection coefficient is given in polar form together with the corresponding normalised impedance in rectangular form. The Smith chart is plotted on the complex reflection coefficient plane in two dimensions and is scaled in normalised impedance the most common smifh, normalised admittance or both, using different abzque to distinguish between them.

The wavelengths scale is used in distributed abwque problems and represents the distance measured along the transmission line connected between the generator or source and the load to the point under consideration. The complex reflection coefficient is generally simply referred to as reflection coefficient.

Substituting these into the equation relating normalised impedance and complex reflection coefficient:.

At this frequency the free space wavelength is 3 m. The normalised impedance Smith chart is composed of two wmith of circles: The Smith chart may be used to analyze such circuits in which case the movements around the chart are generated by the normalized impedances and admittances of the components at the frequency of operation.

Smith chart

The analysis starts with a Z Smith chart looking into R 1 only with no other components present. In the complex reflection coefficient plane the Smith chart occupies a circle of unity radius centred at the origin. As the transmission line is loss free, a circle centred at the centre of the Smith chart is drawn through the point P 20 to represent the path of the constant magnitude reflection coefficient due to the termination. In general therefore, most RF engineers work in the plane where the circuit topography supports linear addition.


If the termination was a perfect open circuit or short circuit the magnitude of the reflection coefficient would be unity, all power would be reflected and the point would lie at some point on the unity circumference circle.

Smith chart – Wikipedia

D the result is obtained it may be de-normalised to obtain the actual result. Reading from the Smith chart scaling, smity that this is now a normalised admittance gives.

The following table shows the steps taken to work through the remaining components and transformations, returning eventually back to the centre of the Smith chart and a perfect 50 ohm match.

The most commonly used normalization impedance is 50 ohms. The conversion may be read directly from the Smith chart or by substitution into the equation.

The north pole is the perfect matching abaqje, while the south pole is the perfect mismatch point. This page was last edited on 15 Augustat The Smith chart may also be used for lumped element matching and analysis problems. The region above the x-axis represents inductive impedances positive imaginary parts and the region below the x -axis represents capacitive impedances negative imaginary parts.

The outer circumferential scale of the Smith chart represents the distance from the generator to the load scaled in wavelengths and is therefore scaled from zero abaqu 0.

Retrieved from ” https: The degrees scale represents the angle of the voltage reflection coefficient abaaue that point. At point P 21 the circle intersects with the unity circle of constant normalised resistance at.

The magnitude of a complex number is the length of a straight line drawn from the origin to the point representing it. How may the line be matched?

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. While the use of paper Smith charts for solving the complex mathematics involved in matching smlth has been largely replaced by software based methods, the Smith chart display is still the preferred method of displaying how RF parameters behave at one or more frequencies, an alternative to using tabular information.