Title, Colombia: ciudad y violencia. Colección Ciudad y democracia. Authors, Alvaro Camacho Guizado, Alvaro Guzmán Barney. Publisher, Ed. Foro Nacional, . Title, Credo, necesidad y codicia: los alimentos de la guerra. Author, Alvaro Camacho Guizado. Published, Length, 14 pages. Export Citation, BiBTeX. ÁLVARO CAMACHO GUIZADO’s 2 research works with 23 citations and 38 reads , including: From Smugglers to Warlords: Twentieth Century Colombian Drug.

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They have also had to bear aerial spraying with highly toxic products and the government’s “carrot and stick” approach, all of which has engendered an extremely traumatic relationship with a State that has favored eradication measures over more reasonable alternatives. Secondly, the diagnosis gulzado and incorporated into Colombian alvaroo does not necessarily take into consideration Colombia’s national state of affairs.

According to Greenpeace, “Glyphosate is one of the most toxic herbicides, with many species of wild plants being damaged or killed by applications of less than 10 micrograms per plant.

Colombia Loses Álvaro Camacho Guizado

That which identifies them is the aim to accumulate riches and social status by illegal means, the use of violence and bribery, the search for social recognition, their urban-poor origins, and prior delinquency records.

In Colombia, after the disappearance or imprisonment of the big capos, unknown drug-entrepreneurs came to the fore and took charge of keeping up the distribution and exportation structure. Since only large landowners can afford extensive cattle raising, a collateral effect of environmental damage is the fostering of land monopolization processes.

Thirdly, it is almost impossible for the State to keep the peasants, once their crops eradicated, from planting illicit crops anew in uncultivated common land.

The problem alvark this proactive governmental action is that it is circumstantial. Attempts should be made to address consumption as a public health issue and not as a criminal problem. Drug-organization dynamics always seems to be one step ahead of law-enforcement efforts, following models easily recognizable by students of the nature and dynamics of modern organized crime [15].


According to the Colombian government, coca crop yields remained constant from to The survey indicates that less people are consuming licit drugs: And those that gulzado to subsist are full of chemical poisons.

There are certain aspects of current counternarcotics policies which have been particularly harmful. This, of course, depends on the circumstances of the moment. They thus hinder all chances of institutional mediation since they are adverse to institutional loyalty of any kind, and they endorse the fact that anyone can reach power through the use of violence.

Alvaro Camacho Guizado

Although some steps have already been taken, other measures are urgently required, as for example, alternative dispositions involving a graduated scale of punishment. As a result, peasants go further up the mountain, clear protective vegetation, destroy genetic resources, and plant in remote, largely inaccessible areas.

The purpose of a counternarcotics policy is defeated if it only attacks the production of narcotics and does not simultaneously incorporate strong measures to curb drug abuse, the sale of precursors and money laundering. This not only means an 8 to year process, which by typical Colombian standards is way too long, but the fulfillment of other more difficult requirements.

In any case, these figures correspond to potential production and do not take into consideration eradication results.

Furthermore, although this might be a source of contention, particularly with the U. The domestic market is in the hands alvark resellers who shift most of the risk onto the street dealers, the people in constant touch with the consumers.

Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Indigenous people have several reasons for growing coca.

Colombia Loses Álvaro Camacho Guizado | NACLA

At any rate, and in spite of some achievements, the experts tend to disqualify the coherence and reasoning alvato narcotics policies. Merchants thus expand their land holdings, which they use for extensive agriculture or, in some cases, for illicit-crop growing. It needs to supersede the ambiguous, anti-technical and undemocratic National Narcotics Statute currently in force.


Another likelihood is that of peasants planting illicit crops in order to take advantage of Plante subsidies.

These are the standards they live by. He attributed the resilience of narco-trafficking to its agency and enormous profits, which has produced non-hierarchical organizational structures. This conjunction of factors has only heightened the country’s civil strife and made all possibilities of peace and democracy even more remote. By the s, Colombia, while still maintaining a leading transshipping role, was producing cocaine and cultivating opium poppy.

Popularity Popularity Featured Price: Marijuana production, which during the s was not abundant, seems to have increased between and Drug traffickers have been instrumental in organizing paramilitary squads and self-defense groups which have applied their mass-murder strategies to anyone suspected of having anything to do with the guerrilla groups.

Rest in peace my dear friend. That, as a result, only the small landowners and tenants should have access to alternative development initiatives whereas, as the government sees it, commercial plantations should receive no compensation whatsoever. It is a comprehensive program which proposes illicit crop abandonment or substitution in exchange for markets for the resulting new products or services.

However, some of the experts seem to think that these policies have been successful. They moved into the market and established business relations with legal merchants. The highest rates of drug use are found in the more urbanized areas, with notable differences from region to region: It contemplates risk capital and technical assistance in production, product processing and marketing.

The only way to understand how the different strata in the organization work is on the premise that the so-called carteles are not pyramid-shaped structures but federations of organized-crime outfits under the leadership of, and answerable to, a capo.