He argues that what is crucial to warrant is the proper functioning of one’s cognitive faculties in the right kind of cognitive environment. In this companion volume to Warrant: The Current Debate, Plantinga develops an Alvin Plantinga He argues that what is crucial to warrant is the proper functioning of one’s cognitive faculties in the right kind of cognitive environment. Alvin Plantinga, Warrant and Proper Function Reviewed by Some Remarks on Bonjour on Warrant, Proper Function, and Ruloff –

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All of the non-environmental conditions for warrant, furthermore, are met.

Proper Functionalism

So perhaps, in at least some of the cases at issue, the individuals in question do acquire knowledge via belief-forming tendencies resulting from cognitive malfunction, but only by way of having learned those tendencies to be reliable.

According to Bergmann, this question points to an area in which a proper functionalist theory of justification has the advantage. Sep 27, Jacob Aitken rated it really liked it Shelves: Something else must be added.

Kelly James Clark and Raymond J. Here the proper functionalist might attempt once more to press the Reidian point that in general it appears true that there is no inherent connection between our sensory experiences and the contents of the beliefs based on them.

Search my Subject Specializations: Consider a population of beings, just like ourselves, who form their beliefs in response to experience in just the ways that we do, but who unlike us are victims of a Cartesian demon who renders their belief-forming processes unreliable.

At least to a first approximation, a phenomenal conservative theory of doxastic justification may be characterized as the view that a belief with the content that p is justified for an agent if it seems to the agent that p, the agent appropriately bases her belief that p on that seeming, and the agent has no defeaters for that belief. Suppose one agrees that a phenomenal conservative view of justification does better than a proper functionalist view on these counts.


Tyler Wunder – – Religious Studies 44 2: It is not the case that the foundationalist claim a belief is properly basic because it is either self-evident to me or immediately present to my senses meets its own criteria: In the nature of the case we do not have basic beliefs about these three entities in the sense that evidentialism and classic foundationalism require especially memory and testimony; solipsism has a host of problems beyond this.

In support of this claim, he notes that it seems possible that this remarkable ability of theirs might become damaged in such a way that it is no longer reliable ; in that case, he contends, we would be inclined to say that this ability had malfunctioned.

The having of this property is frequently though not universally held to be a necessary condition for a belief being an item of knowledge. In this companion volume to Warrant: Chapter 9 offer proper functionalist theories of epistemic probability, for example.

Warrant and Proper Function

First, it accommodates the intuition that inhabitants of a demon world, who are like us, and who form their beliefs in response to experience in the same ways we do, have the same proportion of justified beliefs. Yandell – – Sophia 44 1: If a typical human being, as a result of cognitive malfunction, suddenly found it seeming to her that she could just see that matches had fallen out of a box, we might doubt that she really knows there are matches. Although this book is in some sense a sequel to its companion volume, proer arguments do not presuppose those of the first book and it stands alone as a stimulating contribution to epistemology.

Bergmann argues however that our ordinary concept of justification does not appear to be relativized in this way. But it is a safe bet that proper functionalist theories will continue to serve as serious contenders for the foreseeable future.


Mike Harper rated it really liked it Oct 11, Plausibly, what occurs in the case at issue is that a malfunction results in the suppression of these kinds of functions, leaving various other truth-aimed functions associated with the production of the relevant memorial experiences intact. ppantinga

Warrant and Proper Function – Alvin Plantinga – Google Books

Plantinga himself gives a theistic account of this notion, but other proper functionalists, such as Ruth Millikan and Peter Grahamhave offered naturalistic, evolutionary accounts.

He suggests that there is an analogy between Swampman and the demon victims in such a scenario; accordingly, he adapts his reply to the former so as to apply it to the latter.

Duncan Pritchard – – Synthese 3: And if that is so, then perhaps other kinds of beings might come to form justified beliefs on the basis of kinds of reasoning that from a purely logical point of view are formally suspect, but nonetheless reliable in the environments for which their cognitive faculties were designed.

Our Faithfulness to the Past Sue Campbell. Warrant, by contrast, needs far more, experience among other things Throughout this defense we see the vindication finction Thomas Reid.

Any well formed human being who is in an epistemically congenial environment and whose intellectual faculties are in good working order will typically take for granted at least three things: Request removal from index. He argues that what is crucial to functiob is the proper functioning of one’s cognitive faculties in the right kind of cognitive environment.