This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. All the Controls products ASTM C standard. Enter now!. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as C – 05a. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,

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Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons.

A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance to this elusive subject. Stanton, began his research on a few of these structures and found an expansive reaction between cement and aggregate taking place.


When siliceous aggregate is attacked by an alkali solution, it is converted to a viscous alkali silicate gel. Development of a more economical and more abundant admixture may be the future for ASR mitigation.

The results show that mortar-bar expansion was promoted with increased cement fineness regardless of clinker alkali, aggregate reactivity, or soak solution normality.

For ASR to occur, four things must be present: What we do know, however, is important for precasters to understand.

Regardless, here is a list of key ASR points for precasters to know: This document is currently not available here. Atoms are comfortable with themselves when they are fully loaded ashm that outer band.

Lithium compounds have also been used, but they may be cost-prohibitive and limited in availability. That is, if you have questions about the durability of your concrete, save some samples and leave them exposed to the elements. Federal Highway Administration, fhwa.


Keep in mind that some cements contain a higher proportion of potassium sulfate K 2 SO 4 than sodium sulfate Na 2 SO 4. This is a result astn a number of sequential reactions. Determined to understand more, I have spent the past several weeks diving into the mysteries of ASR using recent reports from the Federal Highway Administration and various other scholarly professionals in an effort to fill in the blanks.

The same goes for calcium, but since it is in the second column of the periodic table, it must lose two electrons for this to happen.

Filling in the Blanks on Alkali-Silica Reaction

This method is one of the best ways to see ASR happen if you intentionally use aggregates with a high silica content like glass in concrete.

Eventually, the tensile stresses caused by the increase in volume exceed the tensile strength of the concrete, causing cracks. At least, this was the blame at the time. Petrography may be used to classify an aggregate as potentially reactive, but expansion testing is required to determine the extent of the reactivity and appropriate levels of prevention.

Consequently, the two tests are often run together. Knowing this is essential to understand what needs to be done to mitigate this destructive process. C is used to test the reactivity potential of aggregates, while C includes the use of secondary cementitious materials within the mortar bar samples to determine the effective reduction of ASR.

However, some cases of concrete failure could not be attributed to either of these causes, prompting a deeper investigation. Specification of fineness and alkali content of cement, or both, might be beneficial to further improve the reliability and reproducibility of ASTM C The cracks radiate from the interior of c12260 aggregate out into the surrounding paste.


Overall, ASR is characterized primarily by four main features: These empty voids, when qstm, allow the gel to migrate into the cracks. Ask your aggregate provider first for test results before contacting a laboratory. Cement mill certificates contain information that can prove useful for tracking changes in your concrete and controlling variability in your mix design.

In this study, high and low alkali portland cement clinkers were selected and ground with gypsum in a laboratory ball mill to three fineness levels: Sstm you can read like a chemist, it looks like this: If you compare this with the composition of your aggregates, you should give yourself a pat on the back.

V1260 is all critical to ASR to show where the reactivity is taking place.

ASTM C, Test equipment Controls

This astn is similar to C with a testing period of 14 days. Though Stanton might not have been the first to visually recognize ASR, he is credited with the first serious research into why it occurred. If ASR has been identified by the specifying authority within the region, it is recommended that precast producers perform long-term testing on concrete samples.

ASR asfm be avoided with a proper concrete mix design. Search Enter search terms: This makes them highly reactive. C is used as an initial screening test for aggregates and C determines the effectiveness of the SCM being considered to moderate the aggregate activity.