Designation: D – 02 Standard Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test1 This standard is issued under the?xed designation D. ASTM D Uploaded by. Leonardo Gonçalves. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking the. ASTM D Pull Off Test Standard. Uploaded by. vlong ASTM D MEK Test (Zinc Test). Uploaded by. vlong ASTM D Eng Cross-cut.
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Standard Test Method f A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. Also, Test Method B is not considered suitable for? They do not distinguish between higher levels of adhesion for which more sophisticated methods of measurement are required. NOTE 2—It should be recognized that differences in adherability of the coating surface can affect the results obtained with coatings having the same inherent adhesion.
Summary of Test Methods 3.
Procedure for X-CUT TAPE TEST METHOD-ASTM D3359-02
Because the substrate and its surface preparation or lack of it have a drastic effect on the adhesion of coatings, a method to evaluate adhesion of a coating to different substrates or surface treatments, or of different coatings to the 2 3 1.
The values given in parentheses are for information only. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Current edition approved Aug. Originally published as D — Last previous edition D — The intra- and inter-laboratory precision of this test method is similar to other widely-accepted tests for coated substrates for example, Test Method D and Test Method Dbut this is partly the result of it being insensitive to all but large differences in adhesion.
The limited scale of 0 to 5 was selected deliberately to avoid a false impression of being sensitive. Apparatus and Materials 5.
It is of particular importance that the cutting edges be in good condition. Because of the variability in adhesion strength from batch-to-batch and with time, it is essential that tape from the same batch be used when tests are to be run in different laboratories. If this is not possible the test method should be used only for ranking a series of test coatings. NOTE 4—Coatings should be applied in accordance with Practice Dor as agreed upon between the purchaser and the seller.
NOTE 5—If desired or speci? The conditions and time of exposure will be governed by ultimate coating use or shall be agreed upon between the purchaser and seller. Extremes in temperature or relative humidity may affect the adhesion of the tape or the coating.
After immersion, clean and asttm the surface with an appropriate solvent which will not harm the integrity of the coating. Then dry or prepare the surface, or both, as agreed upon between the purchaser and the seller.
When making the incisions, use the straightedge and cut through the coating to the substrate in one steady motion. If the substrate has not been reached make another X in a different location. Do not attempt ast, deepen a previous cut as this may affect adhesion along the incision. Remove an additional length at a steady that is, not c rate and cut a piece about 75 mm 3 in. Smooth the tape into place by?
The color under the transparent tape is a useful indication of when good contact has been made. For large structures make sufficient tests to ensure that the adhesion evaluation is representative of the whole surface. Discard cutting tools that develop nicks or other defects that tear the? For tests in the? The manufacturer of this tape and the manufacturer of the tape used in the interlaboratory study see RR: Dhave advised this subcommittee that the properties of these tapes were changed.
Users of it should, therefore, check whether current material gives comparable results to previous supplied material. D — 02 results with the adhesion rating s.
If the adhesion strength of the tape has not been determined, report the speci? Precision and Bias 8 9. Apparatus and Materials It is of particular importance that the cutting edge or edges be in good condition.
It should be noted, however, that multitip cutters10 provide good results only on test areas sufficiently plane that all cutting edges contact the substrate to the same degree. One supplier that has assisted in the re?
Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee,1 which you may attend. After drying or testing the coating, conduct the tape test at room temperature as de?
When making successive single cuts with the aid of a guide, place the guide on the uncut area. If the metal has not been reached make another grid in a different location. To ensure good contact with the? The color under the tape is a useful indication of when good contact has been made.
Rate the adhesion in accordance with the following scale illustrated in Fig. However, the precision values given in Flaking and detachment worse than Grade 1.
Precision and Bias 8 As Mittal 1 12 has pointed out, the answer is both yes and no. It is reasonable to state that at the present time no test exists that can precisely assess the actual physical strength of an adhesive bond. But it can also be said that it is possible to obtain an indication of relative adhesion performance.
Criticism of these tests arises when they are used to quantify the strength of adhesive bonding. But this, in fact, is not their purpose. Direct tests include the Hesiometer and the Adherometer 2. Common methods which approach the direct tests are peel, lapshear, and tensile tests. Criteria deemed essential for a test to warrant large-scale acceptance are: There generally is difficulty, however, in relating these tests to basic adhesion phenomena.
In its simplest version a piece of adhesive tape is pressed against the paint? Adhesion is then rated by comparing?
Both test methods are used to establish whether the adhesion of a coating to a substrate is at an adequate level; however they do not distinguish between higher levels of adhesion for which more sophisticated methods of measurement are required. Major limitations of the tape test are its low sensitivity, applicability only to coatings of relatively low bond strengths, and non-determination of adhesion to the substrate where failure occurs within a single coat, as when testing primers alone, or within or between coats in multicoat systems.
For multicoat systems where adhesion failure may occur between or within coats, the adhesion of the coating system to the substrate is not determined. Applied to metals, it is economical to perform, lends itself to job site application, and most importantly, after decades of use, people feel comfortable with it.
It is assumed that coating removal occurs when the tensile force generated along the latter interface, which is a function of the rheological properties of the backing and adhesive layer materials, is greater than the bond strength at the coating-substrate interface or cohesive strength of the coating.
In actuality, however, this force is distributed over a discrete distance O-A in Fig. Thus both tensile and compressive forces are involved in adhesion tape testing. Several factors that contribute to these differences include coating composition and topology: Further, the tape test does not give an absolute value for the force required for bond rupture, but serves only as an indicator that some minimum value for bond strength was met or exceeded 7, 8.
By design it was made as simple as possible to perform, and requires a minimum of specialized equipment and materials that must meet certain speci? Key steps that directly re?
It is not unexpected that different operators might obtain different results 7, 8.
ASTM D | Leonardo Gonçalves –
If the peel angle and rate vary, the force required to remove the tape can change dramatically. These effects are related as they re? Variation in pull rate and peel angle can effect large differences in test values and must be minimized to assure reproducibility 9. For coatings on soft substrates, issues include how deep should this cut penetrate, and is it possible to cut only to the interface? Cohesive failure within the coating? The central issues are that the test on plastics lacks reproducibility and does not relate to the intended application.
Both concerns are well founded: More importantly, in this instance the test is being applied beyond its intended scope. These test methods were designed for relatively ductile coatings applied to metal substrates, not for coatings often brittle applied to plastic parts 7. The unique functional requirements of coatings on plastic substrates cause the usual tape tests to be unsatisfactory for measuring adhesion performance in practice. Differences in tapes used can lead to different results as small changes in backing stiffness and adhesive rheology cause large changes in the tension area.
Some commercial tapes are manufactured to meet minimum standards. A given lot may surpass these standards and thus be suitable for general market distribution; however, such a lot may be a source of serious and unexpected error in assessing adhesion.
Also, because tapes change on storage, bond strengths of the tape may change over time 7, 8. For example, when the peel removal force of the tape from the coating used earlier by Task Group D However, with the tape test, failures within the substrate or coating layers are rare because the tape adhesive is not usually strong enough to exceed the cohesive strengths of normal substrates and organic coatings.
Although some rather brittle coatings may exhibit cohesive failure, the tape test adhesion method does not make provision for giving failure locality 7, 8. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.
Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every? Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters.