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Although the CoaliciSn survived untilwhen it was replaced by the UniSn Nacional, and the Alianza Liberal untiltheir component parties tended to change sides when they wished. The nature of the socialism which pztriotico P03 attempted to spread was charactorised by vapunness, romanticism and an absence of profound analysis. Amongst the most Important were the economic dif- ficulties facing the country and the activities of A”, irre Cerda’s right-wing opponents who controlled Congress unt1l Narch and who used all the means at their disposal to frustrate the now regime.

Patriptico the PCChOs own criticisms of its organisational shortcomings are taken literallyp its growing huiodbro after had more to do with the popularity of its new political line than its efforts to correct organisational deficiencies. Minis- terial instability, caused by the use of the congressional faculty to censure and remove ministers from office, and the huidobrp of Congress in the most minute details of pub- lic administration, in a manner inimical to efficiency and dispatch, became striking features of the Parliamentary Re- public.

Despite the harniony which developed between Agrilirre Cerda and the PSI howevert the Socialists were the first persistent Popular Front critics of the government’s short- comings.

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C6sar rSantiagog Quo es ei baalance Conditions in the southern coalfields mirrored those found in the nitrate provinces while the experiences of the migrant worker in the towns tended towards the forma- tion of similar attitudes, if in a less intensive form.

Moreoverg the PS expressed serious doubts as to whether the PR9 clearly divided between those who continued to collaborate with Hiidobro and those who did huifobro could be incorporated into an alliance of the left. ;atriotico POS’s adoption of political means to achieve its ends earned it the implacable hostility of the anarchists who regarded participation in tho bourgeois political process, however noble the objective, as rank reformism and class treachery.

Firstlyq because it was necessary to show the rank and file Socialist that all reasonable efforts had’been made to secure the nomina- tion for Grove -a man of great ijersonal porularity inside the PSe Secondq and more important, it was a useful way of impressing on the PR Its indebtedness to the PS – pahriotico indebtedness which could be converted into concrete relvards should Aguirre Cerda win the election. Second, by closinp Cbilefs traditions] European marketsq the war made the cnuntry increasLn-ly de- pendent on the USA9 the only nower in a’position – 7oo7raphic and economic – to rive Chile two help It needed to overcome the difficulties caused by the war.


Presidents were not permitted to serve more than two consecutive terms and Congress, which the Presidents could not dissolve, was given limited powers over finance and the Armed Forces.

The choice of Mery as can- didate was particularly shrewd since he was a member of a Block party the Partido Radical Socialista g a known ibaftistal director of La Opini6n the principal opposition newspaper and on the run from the police who were trying to serve an exile order on hime The PS, which had planned 35 Izquierda Only strong pressure from the political leaderships of both parties secured a compromise peace in October -a peace which once again j; ave the Socialists control of the CDN but which increased the size of that body and gave the PCCh two additional seatso 39 By that timeg howeverg another source of friction had emerged to bedevil PS-PCCh relations – the Second World War.

Thus2 Aguirre Cerda’s offer of povernment office to Ole P jCV, and the narty’s public rejection of cabinet nosts were matters of form. Organizar y movilwar los recurs8 del 13afs nara la defensm nacional. Went North to Andacollo in to take up employment as a metal worker.

Secretary General of the pcch Moreoverg Ib9ftez was thought to be personal- ly better suited to deal with the abrasive challenge of the candidate of the Higbtq Gustavo Ross- 76 Apart from these 74 According to Claridadq the parties of the Right polled votes in the April muni- cipal elections while frentistaparties polled 16l, The PCCh’s increasinfrly hard line policies were a direct threat to the PsIs influence at a time when the cost of living was accelerating and when congressional elections were fast approaching.

Enciclopedia Regimului Comunist – Represiunea Documents. The POS grew out of this background of burgeoning labour organisations and out of the spread of socialist ideas. Alessandri wis as much a product of traditional i– olitics as Barros 13orpoilo but he presented himself as the protagonist of all those who wanted radical change, In a demopogic campaign which aroused the wild enthusiasm of the masses – and the fears of his opponents – he promised a series of sweepinp social and constitutional reforms.


The real turning point in his career came in when, already prominent in Democrat circles in Valparaiso and Santiago, he was chosen to organise the second national conference of the Congreso Social Obrero.

P 47 ‘rnst Halperin suggests another reason for the P.

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Howeverg althoueh the PCGh was able to create an electoral coalitiong a unified trade union movement and a series of auxiliary Front organisationag it failed to create a Popular Front movement which measured up to the orilkinal conception either in scope or momentum.

Vinallyp it gave the PS the opportunity to score some useful political points 79 Claridad 80 Seeq 6n 4. In the first placoo tho Pi did not patrotico iwportune Aguirre Corda for government posts andq secondly, its antagonisms towards both the PR and the PCCh made it the President’s natural ally in tie context of the internal politics of the Popular Front.

Socialists were to participate in elections for public of- fice and were exhorted to form trade unions and cooperatives. In sum, the whole economy became hostage to the fortunes of this single indus- try. Allende’s Chile Londonp p 91 iee Ricardo Donosolop. The PR accused the Socialist ininister of Health of carrying out a purge of Radical functionaries in the departments under his control and the Socialist 31 Consigna Police and Army killed tens and sometimes hundreds of workers in strikes in ValparaisoSantiago and Antofagasta If the prowtti in tile PCCh’s balamce between and must reiiain a iuatter for conjecttire.

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One faction of the pelucones, led by Diego Portales, managed to impose its criterion on the Constitution. The suspicion also remains that the tougher political line adopted by the party during and the purge itself were used by factions on the CC to settle ppatriotico scores. The mancomunal, which first appeared in Iquique incombined the essential features of both the mutualist and the viceente society and was the true pre- cursor of the modern Chilean trade union.