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Russo and Venancio observed that it was not just the professional field that adhered to the DSM. The nosographic entity of maniac-depressive psychosis gave way to the notion of mood disorders.

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition, DSM Freud formulated that the formation of the subject corresponds to the introduction of these subjective elements into the psyche, although they are housed in the unconscious, as unconscious knowledge i.

It was probably his interest in deciphering order and meaning where psychiatry tended to see disorder that led Freud to grant a higher status as paranoia in the field of psychosis in other words, to organized delusion to the detriment of schizophrenia which implied disorganization, dissociation, deterioration.

Another part of this process was the transposition of the medical notion of the syndrome, or the syndromic diagnosis, from general medicine to psychiatry Aguiar,p. Current pathological classifications prioritize a physicalist approach.

The same criterion allowed him to separate these diseases from maniac-depressive psychosis, notwithstanding the occurrence of manic and depressive states in both, since an fundamenyos notion loz maniac-depressive psychosis is the full recovery of the personality at the end of each episode, which does not occur in hebephrenia or catatonia.

In all these clinical manifestations of psychosis, we can recognize a subject with the inability to integrate and develop these dimensions of the human, but who is still concerned with them. In cliinca most fundaamentos cases, all manifestations of affect are abandoned; in less severe cases, affect is inappropriate.


The effects of this damage on mental life predominates in the emotional and volitional areas. Within the limits of this study, we will say that while neurosis which is also our normality is the structure formed by interiorization, by the subject, of the injunctions established by the symbolic system father, generational chain, sexual differencepsychosis corresponds to the situation where the fundamentks cannot create a psychological interiority from these dimensions, a symbolized experience of himself.

Its evolution moves toward impoverishment. These two poles fhndamentos complementary and connected by the following common features which are inherent to the disease: This favored the view that psychosis is a phenomenon which is always disruptive, and that its treatment addresses rearranging what the break threw into disarray.

Accomplishment of this task, initially, demands maintaining the distinction between neurosis and fundajentos as designating two ways for a subject to constitute himself or herself and to respond to life.

The notion of psychosis was the category that determined psychiatry for almost two centuries. Culture and society also followed suit. The impact of the DSM-III in the clinic, in research, and in the theorization of the field of psychiatry and psychopathology was enormous: Not each pathology, but that lady or that gentleman. Puntualizaciones psicoanaliticas sobre un caso de paranoia Dementia paranoides descrito autobiograficamente.

Essentially, it asserted that the delusions and hallucinations of a psychotic are formations that arise from the same issues in face of which low so-called normal subject constitutes himself or herself cf.

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As a neurologist, he was interested in the enigma that hysteria represented for this specialty, and the invention of psychoanalysis corresponds to the rupture that Freud introduced into the understanding of this disease hysterical neurosis.

The second line, that of positive or productive symptoms, culminates in delirium, at least in paranoid schizophrenia, but includes the entire series of hallucinations and experiences that begin with the feeling of strangeness or xenopathy of thought and of mental functioning — delusional intuitions and perceptions, mental automatism, depersonalization, and the experience of influence.


This new inflection represented a paradigm shift, weakening the description of mental illnesses based on assumptions we could call psychodynamic in favor of a physicalist approach to mental pathology.

The first is that although it claims to be free of theory, the DSM actually is related with the pragmatism of Peirce and empiricist theses. The fact that schizophrenia has encompassed almost everything that still is considered as psychosis has relegated to oblivion several important semiological references and accurate descriptions of the various clinical forms of psychoses.

Os fundamentos da clínica: história e estrutura do saber psiquiátrico – ScienceOpen

What is at stake is the same distinction mentioned previously, which we will now call by the contrast of deficit versus structure: Freud himself never had a regular practice with psychotic patients. Freud,p. Although it is also necessary to consider the current existence of different types of personality fundaamentos borderline, schizoid, antisocial, histrionic, and othersDalgalarrondop.

With bipolar disorders, psychosis was reduced to the accessory presence of hallucinatory or delusional phenomena. The division between neurosis and psychosis is abandoned, as it implies an act of naming that extends beyond an empirical statement:. Le Bercheriie Psychanalytique, n. Loss subject is forced to exist in the language which precedes him and which is imposed on him as law.

Nobre de Melo,p. Another symptom is added to these, which Bleulerp. XXIV; emphasis in the original.