“Computing Machinery and Intelligence” is a seminal paper written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence. The paper, published in in Mind, . This question begins Alan Turing’s paper ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’ (). However he found the form of the question unhelpful. Computing machinery and intelligence A.M. Turing, MIND This is most certainly a classic paper. We’ve all heard of the ‘Turing Test,’ but.
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An examination of the development in artificial intelligence that has followed reveals that the learning machine did take the abstract path suggested by Turing as in the case of Deep Bluea chess playing computer developed by IBM and one which defeated the world champion Garry Kasparov though, this too is controversial and the numerous computer chess games which can outplay most amateurs.
We can only see a short distance ahead, but we can see plenty there that needs inelligence be done. The choices mean the difference between a brilliant and a poor reasoner.
There are a number of results of mathematical logic which can be used to show that there are limitations to the powers of discrete-state machines. Here is a summary of them:. Making the Right Identification in the Turing Test. Errors of conclusion 1. Wegner – – Cognition 1: Views Read Edit View history. Let us hope and believe that they cannot do so.
Summary of ‘Computing Machinery And Intelligence’ () by Alan Turing
Returning to the imitation game once again, he discusses the situation in which the interrogator is trying to decide between a computer and a telepathic or clairvoyant human Things would be pointed out and named, etc. The Argument from Consciousness 1. However, he does not think that we need to solve this problem in order to answer the question as to whether machines can play the imitation game But which are the best ones to start with?
Sharing my findings with you here! The human computer is supposed to be following fixed rules; he has no authority to deviate from them in any detail. Head in the Sand Objection Argument: Embodiment and Language Comprehension: Contrary Views Before putting his arguments forward, Turing went to great length to refute expected objections: History of Western Philosophy.
Request removal from index. Critique of the New Problem Notify me intellugence new comments via email. Consequently, I believe that this text offers a McLuhanistic view of the medium of the computer. An Executive unit which carries out the individual operations.
A learning process that involves a method of reward and punishment must be in place that will select desirable patterns in the mind. The interrogator stays in a room apart front the other two. If, however, the size of the pile is sufficiently increased, the disturbance caused by such an incoming neutron will very likely go on and on increasing until the whole pile is destroyed.
He doesn’t mean to deny that there is some problem about consciousness. This should apply most strongly to the later education of a machine arising from a child-machine of well-tried design or programme.
Think about the process which has brought about the adult mind: Be kind, resourceful, beautiful, friendly, have initiative, have a sense of humour, tell right from wrong, make mistakes, fall in love, enjoy strawberries and cream, make someone fall in love with it, learn from experience, use words properly, be the subject of its own thought, have as much diversity of behaviour as a man, do something really new. Turing still needs to specify what he means by a machine. Integrating Psychology and Neuroscience: Imitation game consists of three players.
Hence no animal or machine can think. Turing then mentions that the task of being able to create a machine that could play the imitation game is one of programming and he postulates that by the end of the century it will indeed be technologically possible to program a machine to play the game.
Machines may do all the things you have mentioned but you will never be able to make one to do X. Universality of Digital Computers The human judge can converse with both the human and the computer by typing into a terminal. Player A is a man, player B is a woman and player C who plays the role of the interrogator can be of either sex.
Computing Machinery and Intelligence
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Therefore, if any digital machine can “act like it is thinking” then, every sufficiently powerful digital machine can. The Machines Concerned in the Game A. A random element is rather useful when we are searching for a solution of some problem.
He thinks it unlikely that the hardware of the future will be inadequate 1. He gave two reasons. Arguments from Various Disabilities Clearly, a machine won’t learn in exactly the same way as a child 1. Consider the human mind to be like the skin of an onion, in each layer we find mechanical operations that can be explained in mechanical terms but we say these layers do not correspond to the real mind – if that is true then where is it to be found? Turing takes the possibility of things like telepathy seriously 2.