The CRAFFT Screening Interview. Begin: “I’m going to ask you a few questions that I ask all my patients. Please be honest. I will keep your answers confidential.” . that you sniff or “huff”)? Put “0” if none. The CRAFFT Questionnaire (version ). Please answer all questions honestly; your answers will be kept confidential. The CRAFFT is a (updated version of a) behavioral health screening tool for use with children ages and is recommended by the American Academy of .

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A Practical GuideIssue 5th ed. A better understanding of whether the CRAFFT is associated with substance use behaviors, and is able to identify problematic substance use regardless of sociodemographic factors, will provide important information on whether the CRAFFT can be used in HIV care settings.

CRAFFT Substance-related risks and problems Screening Questionnaire for Adolescents

Orally administered brief screens are usually targeted at substance abuse alone and can be administered by the physician as part of the general health interview or while performing the physical examination.

New approaches, such as ceafft interventions, must be developed to adequately meet the need for treatment. Few comparable validation studies have been conducted in general adolescent clinic questionnare, and none of these included both a risk assessment ie, the POSIT scale and a psychiatric diagnostic interview ie, the ADI.

A CRAFFT score of 2 or higher has been shown to have good sensitivity and specificity in identifying substance-related problems and disorders in a general population questionnqire adolescent medical clinic patients This practice serves both inner-city and suburban youth from a wide range of social strata, racial groups, and ethnic backgrounds.

Drug use is highly prevalent among adolescents, 2 and most providers would likely prefer a single test that can screen for all psychoactive substances simultaneously. However, self-report alcohol and other drugs has been shown to be generally reliable and comparable to other methods of substance use detection 2633 We plotted receiver operating characteristic curves to determine the optimal cut point for the CRAFFT test ie, total score with the highest product of sensitivity and specificity for identifying 3 screening categories: Volkow ND, Montaner J.

Matern Child Health J. Although multiple substance use screening tools have been validated for use with adults, recent meta-analytic work identifies only a few screening processes that have substantial empirical support for use with adolescents Subst Abus 37 ed.


Screening categories were “any problem” ie, problem use, abuse, or dependence”any disorder” ie, abuse or dependenceand “dependence. An additional aim of the study was to examine whether there were any sociodemographic differences among those who reported frequent substance use among those who screened positive on the CRAFFT compared to frequent substance users who did not screen positive on the CRAFFT.

The older version of the questionnaire contains 9 items in total, answered in a “yes” or “no” format. Participants were consecutively recruited in approximately half of the 12 clinic sessions conducted each week. Given the high prevalence of substance questionmaire among YLWH and its potential impact on medication adherence and linkage to care, HIV clinical settings should systematically screen for and address substance use among youth in HIV care settings.

Participants with both abuse and dependence diagnoses eg, cannabis abuse and alcohol dependence were classified as having dependence. Table 3 Demographic differences by screening positive on the CRAFFT among participants who reported weekly or more tobacco and alcohol use in the past 3 months.

Early Intervention for Adolescents. Participants were divided into 5 mutually exclusive diagnostic groups based on their pattern of alcohol and other drug use within the previous 12 months: Gamarel1, 2 Kimberly M. Specifically, the CRAFFT could be used to identify problematic substance use and then young people could receive brief interventions, and individuals with more severe substance use problems could be referred to specialized treatment. Frequencies of participants’ demographic characteristics and substance-related diagnostic classifications during the previous 12 months are presented in Table 1.

The Children’s Hospital Boston Committee on Clinical Investigation institutional review board waived the requirement for parental consent in accordance with current guidelines for adolescent health research. The assessment took 45—90 minutes to complete.

Although written questionnaires may present an advantage in efficiency when patients complete them in the waiting area, they are limited by risks to confidentiality. Latent class profiles of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial health indicators are differentially associated with sexual transmission risk: Among frequent substance users, those older in age, behaviorally infected, questionnajre history of incarceration or unstably housed were more likely qufstionnaire screen positive on the CRAFFT.

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Next, we examined bivariate differences using Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression models to compare sociodemographic and substance use behaviors according to whether or not participants screened positive on the CRAFFT i. What This Study Adds.


These findings also suggest a need for additional time and personnel to further assess the substantial numbers of adolescents who will screen positive when universal screening is implemented. J Am Dent Assoc. It is plausible that behaviorally infected youth may use multiple substances as a means of coping with an HIV diagnosis and therefore, are more likely to experience greater consequences related to substance use. Participants completed a self-administered survey.

Participants self-reported their age, sex assigned at birth, gender identity, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, route of infection with HIV, past history of incarceration, unstable housing e. Although this was the case, there were some differences that are worth noting.

CRAFFT Screening Test – Wikipedia

Its name is a mnemonic of the first letters of key words in the test’s 6 questions. Jean Emans, MD, for review of the manuscript. However, some adolescents may be reluctant to discuss quwstionnaire alcohol and other drug use with the pediatrician, even when parents are not present. The screen can be orally administered, and it has a convenient mnemonic, based on key words in each of the 6 yes or no questions.

There were a total of 36 dependence diagnoses; 7 were for alcohol alone, 24 for other drugs alone, and 5 for both alcohol and other drugs. cravft

Validity of the CRAFFT Substance Abuse Screening Test Among Adolescent Clinic Patients

Many widely used screening devices are either impractical for busy medical offices or developmentally inappropriate for adolescents. Corresponding author and reprints: One of the primary reasons for concern regarding substance use among youth living with HIV YLWH is its potential for contributing to disease progression, morbidity, and transmission.

Demographic differences by screening positive on the CRAFFT among participants who reported weekly or more marijuana use and any non-marijuana illicit drug use in the past 3 months.

Journal of the American Medical Association. Sign in to make a comment Sign in to your personal account. First, the results are generalizable only to YLWH who have been diagnosed and linked to care in the cities which were represented with the ATN sample.

Eighteen of the 22 sites obtained waivers of parental consent; however, written parental permission was obtained when required for youth under the age of Journal of Behavioral Medicine.