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Radiographic interpretation of experimentally produced bony lesions. A gutta-percha point has been introduced in the fistulous tract.

A shortening of the radiographic image will result. Since exposure time cwstellucci milliamperage both influence the radiographic density, they can be combined as a single factor known as milliampere-seconds mAs.

One must keep in mind, however, that because the radiographic image is a negative, the shadows appear to be reversed: Strategic Endodontics Frequently, endodontic therapy may also be necessary in teeth that have no pulp or periradicular compromise. Protein substances in odontogenic cyst fluids. I have placed in the most prominent place in my office. In such cases, the dentist and the assistants are urged to protect themselves with rubber gloves, face masks, and protective eye shields, which on the other hand is advisable to use routinely.

Nonetheless, it is pointless to endorontie endodontically a tooth than is no longer periodontically salvageable. The pulp and periodontium seem to share the same vascular source.

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The outer and inner enamel epithelia begin to enddoontie, they come together and form a sort of diaphragm facing the interior of the structure which will become the pulp cavity or the root canal Fig. Instead, he must focus his attention on the etiology i. In other cases, such as patients with hepatitis, herpes, or AIDS, it is not only the patient who must be protected from infections, but also the dentist and the staff.


Every tooth of this radiograph tests vital, therefore the apical radiolucencies are not lesions of endodontic origin.

Two radiographs differing in their vertical angulation confirm that the apices of interest are in a more buccal position with respect to the course of the mandibular canal Fig. If one compares two radiographs taken with fixed milliamperage and kilovoltage, but varied exposure times, one notes that the radiograph taken with a longer exposure time is denser and appears darker, like the negative of an overexposed photograph Fig.

To be well performed, it must be done in a careful manner, so several intraoperative radiographs will be required. Percussion test performed gently with the index endodontoe. The radiolucency is not periodontal origin but rather is a primary endodontic lesion caused by the necrotic pulp of the second premolar.

castelluccci First upper molar with an endodontic anatomy that makes the clinical approach extremely difficult. The presence of these processes accounts for the tubular appearance of the dentin Fig.

Reducing the distance between the object and the film, the penumbra zone is again reduced, with a consequent increase of sharpness and resolution, and the enlargement of the shadow with respect to the true size of the object is arnaldoo reduced adapted from P. Keeping the preceding radiographic angulation, the working length of the distobuccal canal is checked. Schematic diagram of the dental lamina and its distal extension in the lower right jaw, seen from the inside. The electrons are reflected and directed toward the anode so as to strike the target.


The magnification factor is easily calculated by dividing the distance D1 radiographic source-to-film by the distance D2 radiographic source-to-object: Schematic diagram of a radiographic tube adapted from P. The enamel organ begins to surround the underlying dental papilla. This would result in areas of the root being devoid of cementum.

Finally, one might be faced with cysts or, even better, with residual infections, but frequently if not always such infections are due to the presence of an apical fragment left in the alveolus after an extraction perfor- C D Fig. Four years later, the lesion is now also involving the right lateral incisor.

Endodontics, Volume 1,2 By Arnaldo Castellucci

Furthermore, a radiograph is a two-dimensional representation of three-dimensional structures. Patients frequently complain of pain following changes in temperature. Accuracy Endodontic Therapy is carried out under continuous monitoring with surgical microscope. If it is necessary to perform the electric test on a tooth covered by a full crown, it can be performed with the appropriate mini-tip by placing it between the border of the prosthesis and the gum.

The scattered radiation that travel in the same direction as the original beam participate in the formation of the image on the film and therefore can have a certain diagnostic utility.