FORNOVO 1495 PDF

The battle of Fornovo (6 July ) was an unsuccessful attempt by an Italian army to stop Charles VIII of France during his retreat from Naples. Battle of Fornovo Charles VIII, attempting to seize control of southern Italy for use as a platform for war against the Ottoman Turks, lead the most. Nicolle, David. Fornovo France’s Bloody Fighting Retreat. Oxford: Osprey, Santosuosso, Antonio. ÔÇťAnatomy of Defeat: The Battle of Fornovo in

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Beneditti was a physician working for the Venetian forces and started his diary in Mayand a month later, was an eyewitness to this battle.

Alessandro Beneditti, The Battle of Fornovo (1495)

Ensure you hit F5 or View Show Animation not displaying properly? On fronovo more positive side, his expedition did broaden contacts between French and Italian humanistsenergizing French art and letters in the latter Renaissance. This battle is classified as a draw and had little eventual consequence but did create a situation in which decisive results and consequences were possible.

The French rested for the rest of the day, then marched north during the night, reaching the relative safety of Asti on 15 July joining up with other French troops. Charles left Italy, without having gained anything. Count Niccola Pitigliano continued to urge the squadrons to bring aid and kept shouting that they should not neglect so great and so providential an opportunity for victory: Rapallo Seminara Fornovo Ostia.

The leader of the mounted archers, from Amplepuis, was blown to bits by artillery. That effectively ended the fornovl.

The French, less encumbered and more lightly armed, hastened down the hill in a dense mass to help. The Venetian proveditors, riding toward the foenovo, forced back the fleeing soldiers whom excessive fear had made cowards even though no enemy was pursuing for terror had taken possession of most of them and reproached them severely for their vain anxiety; they pointed out that they themselves were unarmed and urged them to stop their flight and stay with them.

When the Frenchman heard of this he turned a mind which was fierce in other respects rather to suing for peace fognovo sent a herald to the Venetian proveditors, Luca Pisani and Melchiorre Trevisan.

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Battle of Fornovo

Likewise the avarice of the Greek soldiers who were rushing forward to plunder had sapped their confidence in fighting. Views Read Edit View history.

Many, fearing the fornovp of the terrain, halted this side of the river, but those who had zealously entered upon the struggle were soon in disorder and, not governed by one command, wielded their swords in varied confusion; the slaughter increased on all sides, and the victors could not be distinguished from the vanquished. Retrieved from ” https: The first group, a troop of about 2, was led by Gian Giacomo Trivulzio. Charles bequeathed a meagre legacy: The gist of it ffornovo that the army in close array had fought with the enemy; very many had perished on both sides and the army was at length saved.

Already under threat of excommunication, Charles VIII was ordered to lay down his arms and promote the peace of Christendom by the 149. Gonzaga had about 20, troops By 1 May this army was threatening the garrisons firnovo Charles had left in a trail down Italy to guard his communications with France.

Retrieved 20 March The second, the largest, was led by Charles himself. Some of the infantry followed quickly, but the cavalry almost alone completed the battle.

There were also precious books from the holy chapel, a plaque inlaid with gems and deserving of reverence for its sacred relics, and rings loaded with jewels. Certain standards of the infantry leaders fell into the hands of the Venetians, and an almost countless number of horses and mules was brought into camp.

A League army under Gonzaga seeks to destroy a French army marching home under Charles, but the Taro River separates them.

In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Nonetheless the Frenchman was filled with anxiety when he learned from spies that contrary to expectation the army of the Venetians had been assembled with tremendous speed and was increasing in numbers daily. Battle of Fontenay But when mass had been said the French Kingdecided on the advice of all his nobles to keep to the left in the direction of Medesano, a very well-protected place.

This messenger the French call in their own tongue heraut.

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They agreed nonetheless that the impending battle must be fought. At once joy pervaded the entire assembly. Gradually the French retreated as they fought over the slopes of the hill and the Venetians, though wounded, followed them.

The Venetian reserve entered battle. It would indeed have been the height of felicity if all had turned out well, but we must endure it if fortune has heaped on this one day all the evils of a whole year, a fortune which had been predicted to us as black, so that now, driven by hunger amid great danger, with glory and a kingdom and a triumph lost, with soldiers left behind in Puglia and Calabria, I must return home with a few forces.

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Neither army had destroyed the other, but the French had won, fighting off superior numbers and proceeding on their march. The Venetian proveditors awaited the outcome of the affair near the last ranks, so that if fonrovo was any need they might perform the duty of the general.

Since they did not yet know the losses of the enemy, they could scarcely indicate them. The Milanese laid siege to Novara, defended by a French garrison, while the main part of the army, perhaps as many as 40, men under the command of Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantuaprepared to stop Charles escaping from Italy.

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The League army decided to stop him at Fornovo, near the northern end of the valley. In these he put his entire hope of safety and resolved not to await hunger longer, but to undergo the risk of battle. And so as is wont to happen when a time of crisis draws near, his usual assurance changed to anxiety, his earlier daring to fear, his swollen pride to humility.

A great many of his soldiers wished to flee that very day and not, as a new byword of the camp puts it, hunt the flushed-out fox.