This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.
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To speak the truth, the world is an absolute nothing though it has a conditional existence. May the eye be absorbed into the sun, may the body be absorbed into the” earth, etc. This is absurd, hence the three kinds of quibble are different from one another. Wo at once decide that it is a man, for though tallness is a property possessed in common by man and post, locomotion is a property which distinguishes a man from a post.
Every creature is born with some desires which are associated with the things enjoyed by him in the past life.
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Presumption is the deduction of one thing from the declaration of another thing: Hence the desires do not pre-suppose the soul in the previous lives sutta, in other words, the soul is not eternal. Here the soul is a familiar instance which is known to be nyqya of the property of non-eternality and implies that if anything were produced, it would necessarily be deprived of the quality of eternality, i.
This objection does not hold good, for compari- son is established through similarity in a high degree. Why then cannot gaitama abide long enough to be capable of being modified? The ray of the eye is not perceived in conse- quence of its ntaya but not on account of its total absence because it reaches objects through the aid of exter- ‘ nal light. The Nyaya-sutras assert the premise that “all knowledge is not intrinsically valid”, that “most knowledge is not valid unless proven” and “truth exists whether we human beings know it or not”.
In a kitchen there are of course both smoke and fire, but in a red-hot iron-ball there is no smoke. Contact is not the cause because we do not per- ceive the ray. We are to examine only those cases where there is room for doubt.
Gqutama activity and faults end in producing pleasure, which is acceptable, and pain, which is fit only to bo avoided.
The means will not, of course, be regarded as such when included under the category of an object.
Nyāya Sūtras – Wikipedia
The mark of the mind is that there do not arise in the soul more acts gautamq knowledge than one at a time. Others say that sound like smell, etc. It is said that while we see a tall object in the twilight, we at once think of a man and a post, both of which are tall. The eye, ear, nose and tongue are said to be mere modifications of touch skin, which pervades them, that is, there is only one sense, viz.
Bulletin of Tibetology, Vol. The reply is futile because it overlooks the universal disconnection between the middle term and the absence of the major term. It is only meet that the opponent gatuama quit the company of a man who argues in this way. Now the atoms which possess no bulk are not peyceptible.
Various objects of sense can exist at one time, e. It is, therefore, proper that we should examine the three times.
Some say that there is only one sense as the so- called different objects of sense are not devoid of the charac- ter of an object. He is quite unfit to bo argued with, and there is nothing left for his opponent but to xutra him out or quit his company, rebuking him as a blockhead or a knave.
Hence the soul is eternal. This is a perceived fact which cannot be altered by our words. Some say that the senses are not five because there are more than five objects. There is no non-difference inasmuch as com- parison is established through the compendious expression “so. A bracelet is no doubt a modification of gold or silver but 4 a horse is not a modification of a bull.
The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara
I relafcb’u b3tw,53n fclia senses an I their objects, eg u between the eye and colour, the ear and sound, and so on. Milk modified into curd does not again attain the state of milk. The objection raised in this aphorism is as follows: Hence the body is not soul. The text is written in sutra genre. Hence the parts alone must, according gautwma them, be regarded as real.
Suppose a preceptor delivers certain sounds in the form, of lec- ture which are received by his pupil. Similarly, sound is non-eternal because it is cog- nised by onr sense as belonging to the genus called sound-ness. It is likely, states Jeaneane Fowler, that Nyaya and the science of reason stretch back into the Vedic era; it developed in the ancient Indian tradition that involved “dialectical tournaments, in the halls of kings and schools of Vedic philosophers”, and Gautama was the one who distilled and systematized this pre-existing knowledge into sutrasor aphoristic compilations called nyayasutras.
According to the Buddhist philosophers, however, neither percep- tion nor objects havo any self-existence. Be the first to review nyata item Amazon Bestsellers Rank: In the previous aphorism it was shown that the commission of sins would be impossible if we supposed the body to be the soul. For the purpose of distinction the individual is pro- minent.
It does not conflict with the view that Aksapada is identical with Gautama author of the Gautama Dharma-Sutra which is ” declared to be the oldest of the existing works on the sacred lawj, 1 ‘ Aksapada-Gautama, founder of the Nyaya Philosophy, was almost a contemporary of Buddha-Gautama who founded Buddhism and Indra- bhfiti Gautama who was a disciple of Alalia vira the reputed founder of Jainism.
Tautology consists of a useless repetition but the re-petition in the case of re-inculcation is useful, e. There are therefore five senses corresponding to the five objects. Purpose surta that with an eye to which one proceeds to act. Now, sugra mind, which is an atomic substance, cannot be conjoined with more than one sense- organ at a time, hence there cannot occur more acts of perception than one at one time. But how can we, says the objector, distinguish an unmarked object by the non-existence absence of the mark which tautama does not possess?