In cases of acute intoxication with propane butane (due to damage in heating appliances where propane-butane is used as energy source for heating), asphyxia. Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon . It enters the blood supply and within seconds produces intoxication. Butane is the most commonly misused volatile substance in the UK, and was the. Butane is a commonly misused volatile agent, and a cause of intoxication. We present a case, who had a syncope and persistent ventricular.
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Other dogs showed no ventricular fibrillation after injection with epinephrine when exposed to butane at about 50, ppm.
The reported data LC 16LC 50and LC 84 indicate that the concentration-response curve for a 2-h exposure in mice and a 4-h exposure in rats are very similar see Table Butane is a central nervous system depressant which slows down the activity of the intoxiication, affecting physical and mental responses. No further details were presented on actual exposure concentrations. Ventricular fibrillation following butane gas inhalation; pp. An ambulance arrived within 5 min. Department of Public Health Sciences.
Third, the use of an intraspecies factor of 3 would lead to AEGL-1 values that are unrealistically low e. Butane is a hydrocarbon, found in household and industrial products and is potentially intoxicating if deliberately inhaled. Carcinogenicity studies and studies on reproductive toxicity are lacking.
In addition to butane, methyl ethyl ketone and sec -butanol were detected in blood and tissues as metabolites. Concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues as a measure of toxicity. Several alkanes C 3 to C 7 were studied in this experiment and more severe effects were reported for hexane and heptanes, suggesting that if effects were observed with butane they would have been described more explicitly.
Because details of the study were lacking and because the tests were conducted in anesthetized dogs, no clear conclusions can be drawn from this study. It enters the blood supply and within seconds produces intoxication. A CT scan at 7 days post-partum revealed an almost complete absence of both cerebral hemispheres in the newborn.
Butane is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: The database for butane is poor and important studies date back to the s or s.
Occupational and Epidemiological Studies No data were available. Coping with a partner’s drinking How drink can affect families Looking for help?
Butane intoxication–three case reports.
Therefore, time extrapolation was performed from 10 min to and min exposures, where the steady-state concentration was calculated. A year-old boy died from butane abuse Nishi et al. Three cases of sudden death due to butane or propane gas inhalation: Axial magnetic resonance images show subacute ischemic infarction.
Butane concentrations in his tissues were highest in fat 4.
Butane intoxication–three case reports.
Repeated magnetic resonance imaging over the following weeks revealed disintegration of gray matter, increasing cerebral atrophy, and destruction of basal ganglia. No details on CNS effects were presented for the higher exposure concentrations. Although case reports indicate that butane might cause arrhythmias in humans exposed at high concentrations, no adequate human or animal data are available to evaluate this end point in a quantitative way.
Also, no noticeable irritation was reported at concentrations up toppm probably for a few minand a larger uncertainty factor of 3 would lead to unrealistically low AEGL-1 values.
Butane – Wikipedia
Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: Experiments with dogs Chenoweth ; Krantz et al. The case reports do not provide an adequate basis for AEGL values. Successful resuscitation from recurrent ventricular fibrillation secondary to butane inhalation; pp. A min exposure to butane at 10, ppm caused intoxicatuon in human volunteers.
The 2-h lethality data in mice obtained by Stoughton and Lamson were remarkably similar to those obtained by Shugaev There are no adequate intoxicatipn data for derivation of AEGL-3 values.
It is difficult to distinguish between direct toxicity of butane and the effects caused by hypoxia. They reported that exposure to butane at slowly increasing concentrations butzne to 50, ppm total exposure duration at least 10 min and toppm short exposure, exact duration unknown on the same day did not result in serious complaints Patty and Yant Its main uses are in the production of chemicals like ethylene and 1,3-butadiene, as a refrigerant, as an aerosol propellant, as a constituent in liquefied petroleum gas, and as the main component of gas lighter refills.
The boy suffered from asystolic cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was commenced. Forensic Sci Int ; Although case reports of butane exposure indicate aau for cardiac sensitization analogous to propanethis end point has not been studied. In addition, abuse of other volatile organic solvents cannot be excluded. Propane and isobutane were also detected. All deaths occurred during exposure.
Shugaev exposed rats sex and strain not specified to varying concentrations of butane for 4 h. Ventricular fibrillation induced intxoication hydrocarbons and epinephrine; pp. AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 minutes min to 8 hours h.
Tolerance to butane can develop quickly meaning that more of the substance is required to get the same effect.
Ifkharen aM. CNS depression, no effects consistent with definition of AEGL-2 in guinea pigs exposed to butane at 50, ppm for 2 h. The min AEGL-2 value is greater than the lower explosive limit for butane in air of 19, ppm. The lungs were poorly aerated and the alveoli contained a number of squamous cells.