This is distinct from “the Monitor Hypothesis”, which is the fourth of Krashen’s five hypotheses. .. Krashen’s monitor and Occam’s razor. Applied Linguistics, 5. The input hypothesis, also known as the monitor model, is a group of five hypotheses of second-language acquisition developed by the linguist Stephen Krashen in the s and s. Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just one of the five .. ‘Krashen’s Monitor and Occam’s Razor.’ Applied Linguistics. This paper attempts to briefly examine Krashen’s major hypotheses and to reflect some of .. Gregg, K.R. (): Krashen’s Monitor and Occam’s razor. Applied.

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According to Krashen[7] there are two prime issues that prevent the lowering of the affective filter. This cartoon shows when not to use the monitor. It applies sanctions including withdrawal of funding and other “corrective action” to schools whose students do not meet the yearly progress targets. A Conceptual Framework for Teachers.

The consequence of NCLB has been that many schools country-wide have dropped bilingual classes and adopted English-only programmes with a view to preparing students for these high-stake tests. Proponents of bilingual programmes claim that much immersion or English-only instruction is incomprehensible to non-native speakers, who therefore learn neither English nor subject content.

Due to these difficulties, Krashen recommends using the monitor at times when it does not interfere with communication, such as while writing. A common term for the purported decline in academic expectations is dumbing down. More comments on Whole language Reading proficiency is in many ways the primary academic skill. Clearly, this is possible in the correction of written work. It is pointless spending a lot of time learning grammar rules, since this will not help us become better users of the language in authentic situations.

Krashen’s Monitor and Occam’s Razar | Applied Linguistics | Oxford Academic

It is desirable that students develop the habit of regular reading in each discipline, even if teachers prefer not to use instructional time to enable this.

Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just one of the five hypotheses, but over time the term has come to refer to the five hypotheses as a group. According to the affective filter hypothesis, certain emotions, such as anxiety, self-doubt, and mere boredom interfere with the process of acquiring a second language.


Extra-linguistic knowledge includes our knowledge of the world and of the situation, that is, the context.

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The class remains together for all of their lessons, some of which are in English and the remaining ones in Spanish. More on the Natural Order Hypothesis It is claimed that the natural order of acquisition is very similar for a native-English child learning occwm own language and for an adult learning English as a foreign language.

Nevertheless, teachers of older students and parents may wish to have a little knowledge of such a contentious pedagogical issue. Applied Linguistics, 14 Children who are poor readers usually struggle badly in school.

Article PDF first page preview. Most users should sign in with their email address. The hypothesis that the ability to learn language is innate has been restated more recently by linguist Steven Pinker who claims that this ability is “hard-wired in the genes”. The thousands of research studies, scholarly articles and books based on Krashen’s work are testimony to the major contribution he has made to advancing knowledge and understanding in the fields of linguistics and education.

Students who read more do better on a wide variety of tests. The comprehensible input hypothesis can be restated in terms of the natural order hypothesis. The first is not allowing for a silent period expecting the student to speak before they have received an adequate amount of comprehensible input according to their individual needs. Self-selected reading is extremely enjoyable and probably the most popular means of achieving of what Csikszentmihalyi calls flowthe psychology of optimal experience.

Krashen now refers to this as the Comprehension Hypothesis. Cognitive development – more implications for mainstream teachers Finding real problems for students to solve is clearly not a new concept for teachers, but they are facilitated in their task if schools have curricular models that support them. There are two ways of developing language ability: Applied Linguistics, 5 It has been criticised for the emphasis on process at the expense of product, and for the assumption that writing skills will be acquired intuitively.

This approach became very popular in the latter decades of the twentieth century, replacing skills and rules-based writing instruction that had formerly dominated. Krashen believes that there is no fundamental difference between the way we acquire kdashen first language and our subsequent languages.


Most normal conversation simply does not provide enough time to do so. Whole language is the term for a conglomeration of holistic theories of learning, not only of reading.

Attrition Classroom research Education Phonology Writing. It is much more difficult when engaging in regular talk.


In many cases both types of understanding can be conflated into one process, in others not. Trends in Research and Practice: Krashen’s theory of cognitive development is based in the holistic paradigm.

Reading is the major factor in the development of writing competence. All teachers of non-native English students should regard themselves as teachers of language too. Don’t have an account? Donnelly has written a book with this title. One is unaware of the process as it is happening and, when the new knowledge is acquired, the acquirer generally does not realize that he or she possesses any new knowledge. Teachers could be often seen walking along the razoor immersed in a book; they could comment from time to time in class on something they have read in the newspaper or a magazine.

Teachers, of course, are concerned with the practical worth of a particular theory and are generally oblivious or impervious to such ivory-tower discussions. Teachers can collaborate with the librarian krzshen stock the library and the classrooms with interesting materials. They must not only understand what is meant but also how things are quite literally expressed, i. However, the concept of falsifiability, as the means for distinguishing science from non-science Popper,has itself come in for considerable criticism, e.

The importance of the mother tongue Should I let ESL students talk in their native language in my classroom? They may wish, therefore, to assign self-selected reading as occasional homework and have students report back on anything they feel worthy of sharing with the rest of the class.

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