Encyclical: Libertas Praestantissimum-On Human Liberty [Pope Leo XIII] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Liberty—one of the world’s most. Encyclical on Human Liberty, one of the world’s most misunderstood concepts is put into its true Catholic perspective. Season 4, Popes Against the Modern Errors, Episode 4: Libertas Praestantissimum. by Member Supported Restoration Radio · May 20,
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Augustine, De libero arbitriolib. But man can judge of this contingency, as We say, only because he has a soul that is simple, spiritual, and intellectual – a soul, therefore, which is not produced by matter, and does not depend on matter for its existence; but which is created immediately by God, and, far surpassing the condition of things material, has a life and action of its own so that, knowing the unchangeable and necessary reasons of what is true and good, it sees that no particular kind of good is necessary to us.
But it is not so in regard to pradstantissimum and doctrines which a perversion of morals and a warped judgment have unlawfully introduced.
At no time, and in no place, has she held truce with fatalism. And, so far from this most just authority of God over men diminishing, or even destroying their liberty, it protects and perfects it, for the real perfection of all creatures is found in the prosecution and attainment of their respective ends; but the supreme end to which human liberty must aspire is God. Unless it be otherwise determined, by reason of some exceptional condition of things, it is expedient to take praestantisimum in the administration of public affairs.
Libertas Praestantissimum Archives – Jon Haines
We now only wish to add the remark that liberty of so false a nature is greatly hurtful to the true liberty of both rulers and their subjects. And now to reduce for clearness’ sake to its principal heads all that has been set forth with its immediate conclusions, the summing up in this briefly: For, since God is the source of all goodness and justice, it is absolutely ridiculous that the State should pay no attention to these laws or render them abortive by contrary enact menu.
These things, venerable brothers, which, under the guidance of faith and reason, in the discharge of Our Apostolic office, We have now delivered to you, We hope, especially by your cooperation with Us, will be useful unto very many.
Thus, an effectual barrier being opposed to tyranny, the authority in the State will not have all its own way, but the interests and rights of all will be safeguarded – the rights of individuals, of domestic society, and of all the members of the commonwealth; all being free to live according to law and right reason; and in this, as We have shown, true liberty really consists.
On the one hand, they demand for themselves and for the State a license which opens the way to every perversity of opinion; and on the other, they hamper the Church in divers ways, restricting her liberty within narrowest limits, although from her teaching not only is there nothing to be feared, but in every respect very much to be gained.
The end of all this it is not difficult to foresee, especially when society is in question. But this teaching is understood in two ways.
Libertas (June 20, ) | LEO XIII
Thus, it is manifest that man’s best and surest teacher is God, the Source and Principle of all truth; and the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, the Way, the Truth, and the Life, libetas true Praestahtissimum which enlightens every man, and to whose teaching all must submit: In such case, an excessive and vicious liberty is not sought, but only some relief, for the common welfare, in order that, while license for evil is allowed by the State, the power of doing good may not be hindered.
And deservedly so; for this Christian liberty bears witness to the absolute and most just dominion of God over man, and to the chief and supreme duty of man toward God. From all this may be understood the nature and character of that liberty which the followers of liberalism so eagerly advocate and proclaim.
Now, since everything chosen as a means is viewed as good or useful, and since good, as such, is the proper object praesttantissimum our desire, it follows that freedom of choice is a property of the will, or, rather, is identical with the will in so far as it has in its action the faculty of choice.
Foremost in this office comes the natural lawwhich is written and engraved in the mind of every man; and this is nothing but our reason, commanding us to do right and forbidding sin. A like judgment must be passed upon what is called liberty of teaching. Man, indeed, is free to obey his reason, to seek moral good, and to strive unswervingly after his last end.
As to morals, the laws of the Gospel not only immeasurably surpass the wisdom of the heathen, but are an invitation and an introduction to a state of holiness unknown to the ancients; and, bringing man nearer to God, they make him at once the possessor of a more perfect liberty. But when anything is commanded which is plainly at variance with the will of God, there is a wide departure from this divinely constituted order, and at the same time a direct conflict with divine authority; therefore, it is right not to obey.
If by this is meant that everyone may, as he chooses, worship God or not, it is sufficiently refuted by the arguments already adduced. Wherefore, if such tolerance would be injurious to the public welfare, and entail greater evils on the State, it would not be lawful; for in such case the motive of good is wanting.
From this teaching, as from its source and principle, flows that fatal principle of the separation of Church and State; whereas it is, on the contrary, clear that the two powers, though dissimilar in functions and unequal in degree, ought nevertheless to live in concord, by harmony in their action and the faithful discharge of their respective duties. Yet, with the discernment of a true mother, the Church weighs the great burden of human weakness, and well knows the course down which the minds and actions of men are in this our age being borne.
As a pledge of these heavenly gifts, and in witness of Our good will to you, venerable brothers, and to the clergy and people committed to each of you, We most lovingly grant in the Lord the apostolic benediction. Thus, truth being gradually obscured by darkness, pernicious and manifold error, as too often happens, will easily prevail.
Considered as to its nature, it is the faculty of choosing means fitted for the end proposed, for he is master of his actions who can choose one thing out of many.
By the patrons of liberalism, however, who make the State absolute and omnipotent, and proclaim that man should live altogether independently of God, the liberty of which We speak, which goes hand in hand with virtue and religion, is not admitted; and whatever is done for its preservation is accounted an injury and an offense against the State.
To this rule of action and restraint of evil God has vouchsafed to give special and most suitable aids for strengthening and ordering the human will. Wherefore, when a liberty such as We have described is offered to man, the power is given him to pervert or abandon with impunity the most sacred of duties, and to exchange the unchangeable good for evil; which, as We have said, is no liberty, but its degradation, and the abject submission of the soul to sin.
From this it follows, as is evident, that the liberty of which We have been speaking is oibertas opposed to reason, and tends absolutely to pervert praestantixsimum minds, in as praestantisssimum as it claims for itself the right of teaching whatever it pleases – a liberty which the State cannot grant without failing in its duty.
And the more so because laws of this kind have the same origin, the same author, as the eternal law, are absolutely in accordance with right reason, and perfect the natural law.
Indeed, if what they say were really true, there would be no tyranny, no matter how monstrous, which we should not be bound to endure and submit to. But the manner in which such dignity is exercised is of the greatest moment, inasmuch as on the use that is made of liberty the highest good and the greatest evil alike depend.
For, once ascribe to human reason the only authority to decide what is true and what is good, and the real distinction between good and evil is destroyed; honor and dishonor differ not in their nature, but in the opinion and judgment of each one; pleasure is the measure of what is lawful; and, given a code of morality which can have little or no power to restrain or quiet the unruly propensities of man, a way is ljbertas opened to universal corruption.
Justice therefore forbids, and reason itself forbids, the State to be godless; or to adopt a line of action which would end in godlessness-namely, to treat the various religions as they call them alike, and to bestow upon them promiscuously equal rights and privileges.
For, if nature had really lobertas them, it would be lawful to refuse obedience to God, and there would libbertas no restraint on human liberty. History bears praextantissimum to the energy with which she met the fury of the Manichaeans and others like them; and praesttantissimum earnestness with which in later years she defended human liberty at the Council of Trent, and against the followers of Jansenius, is known to all.
But man is by nature rational. Thomas Aquinas, On the Gospel of St. It is for those, then, who are capable of forming a just estimate of things to decide whether such doctrines promote that true liberty which alone is worthy of man, or rather, pervert and destroy it. Against such as these, all the arguments by which We disprove the principle of separation of Church and State are conclusive; with this super-added, that it is absurd the citizen should respect the Church, while the State may hold her in contempt.
Man must, therefore, take his standard of a loyal and religious life from the eternal law; and from all and every one of those laws which God, in His infinite wisdom and power, has been pleased to enact, and praesrantissimum make known to us by such clear and unmistakable signs as to leave no room for doubt.
Reason shows, and history confirms the fact, that the higher the morality of States; the greater are the liberty and wealth praestantidsimum power which they enjoy.
Season 4, Popes Against the Modern Errors, Episode 4: Libertas Praestantissimum
Nor praestajtissimum the Church been less lavish in the benefits she has conferred on civilized nations in every age, either by resisting the tyranny of the wicked, or by protecting the innocent and helpless from injury, or, finally, by using her influence in the support of any form of government which commended itself to the citizens at home, because of its justice, or was feared by their enemies without, because of its power.
The end, or object, both of the rational will and of its liberty is that good only which is in conformity with reason. And, first, let us examine praesstantissimum liberty in individuals which is so opposed to the virtue of religion, namely, the liberty of worshipas it is called.
To refute completely such teaching, the arguments often used by the defenders of Christianity, and set forth by Us, especially in the encyclical letter Immortale Dei12 are of great avail; for by those arguments it is proved that, praedtantissimum a divine provision, all the rights which essentially belong to a society that is legitimate, supreme, and perfect in all its parts exist in the Church.
The will also, simply because of its dependence on the reason, no sooner desires anything contrary thereto than it abuses its freedom of choice and corrupts its very essence. Libdrtas what has been said it follows that it is quite unlawful to demand, to defend, or to praestantiszimum unconditional freedom of thought, of speech, or writing, or of worship, as if these were so many rights given by nature to man.